Compassionate Colposcopy®


an examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence, cause, or extent of a disease.

Cervical Dysplasia

cervical dysplasia
Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition in which abnormal cell growth occurs on the surface lining of the cervix or endocervical canal, the opening between the uterus and the vagina. It is also called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia


a diagnostic medical procedure in which a non-physician takes pictures of the cervix and submits them to a physician for interpretation. Other related procedures are speculoscopy and colposcopy. The procedure is considered a screening test for cervical cancer and is complementary to Pap smear.


CIN 1 is usually caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and is found when a cervical biopsy is done. CIN 1 is not cancer and usually goes away on its own without treatment. ... Also called cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 1.


a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva.[1] Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination. It is done using a colposcope, which provides an enlarged view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination. The main goal of colposcopy is to prevent cervical cancer by detecting precancerous lesions early and treating them.


a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. The discipline was founded by George Nicolas Papanicolaou in 1928.

Endocervical Sampling

endocervical sampling
a procedure in which the mucous membrane of the cervical canal is scraped using a spoon-shaped instrument called a curette. The procedure is used to test for abnormal, precancerous conditions, or cervical cancer.


1. the branch of biology dealing with the study of tissues.
2. the structure, especially the microscopic structure, of organic tissues.


a surgical operation to remove all or part of the uterus


usually goes away on its own without treatment but sometimes the abnormal cells become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. LSIL is sometimes called mild dysplasia. Also called low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.


surgical removal of one or both ovaries; ovariectomy.

Papanicolaou Smear

papanicolaou smear
A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix. The cervix is the opening of the uterus. A screening test for cervical cancer based on the examination of cells under the microscope. The cells are collected from the cervix, smeared on a slide and specially stained to reveal premalignant (before cancer) and malignant (cancer) changes as well as changes due to noncancerous conditions such as inflammation from infections. Also called a Pap smear.


a procedure in which a special blue-white light (Speculite) is used to examine the cervix for cancerous or pre-cancerous lesions. ... A negative speculoscopy, along with a negative pap smear provides greater assurance of absence of disease.

Brush Cytology

brush cytology
the study of cells, their origin, structure, function and pathology. aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) the microscopic study of cells obtained from superficial or internal lesions by suction through a fine needle. brush cytology. examination of cells obtained from a mucosal surface using a cytological brush.

Cervical Lesions

cervical lesions
a precancerous cervical lesion, which is also called an intraepithelial lesion, is an abnormality in the cells of your cervix that could eventually develop into cervical cancer. There are two main types of cervical cells, squamous and glandular, and abnormalities can occur in either type.


the narrow necklike passage forming the lower end of the uterus.


CIN 2 is not cancer, but may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue if not treated. Treatment for CIN 2 may include cryotherapy, laser therapy, loop electrosurgical procedure (LEEP), or cone biopsy to remove or destroy the abnormal tissue. CIN 2 is sometimes called high-grade or moderate dysplasia.


a raised growth on the skin resembling a wart, typically in the genital region, caused by viral infection or syphilis and transmissible by contact.


Electrosurgery is the application of a high-frequency (radio frequency) alternating polarity, electrical current to biological tissue as a means to cut, coagulate, desiccate, or fulgurate tissue.

Genital Wart

genital wart
a small growth occurring in the anal or genital areas, caused by a virus that is spread especially by sexual contact.


A family of over 100 viruses including those which cause warts and are transmitted by contact. Some types of human papillomavirus are associated with tumors of the genital tract specifically cancer of the cervix.

Minimally Invasive

minimally invasive
requiring only a small incision or the insertion of an instrument into a body cavity; involving minimal damage of body tissue

Pap Screening

pap screening
Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health checkup. There are two types of tests: the Pap test and the HPV test. For both, the doctor or nurse collects cells from the surface of the cervix. With the Pap test, the lab checks the sample for cancer cells or abnormal cells that could become cancer later. With the HPV test, the lab checks for HPV infection. HPV is a virus that spreads through sexual contact. It can sometimes lead to cancer. If your screening tests are abnormal, your doctor may do more tests, such as a biopsy.


likely to develop into cancer if untreated


relating to, consisting of, or denoting a layer of epithelium that consists of very thin flattened cells; squamous cell carcinoma in squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales, and are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. Most cancers of the anus, cervix, head and neck, and vagina are squamous cell carcinomas. Also called epidermoid carcinoma.

Cervical Cancer

cervical cancer:
a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Cervical Neoplasia

cervical neoplasia
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia, is the abnormal growth of cells on the surface of the cervix that could potentially lead to cervical cancer. [1] More specifically, CIN refers to the potentially premalignant transformation of cells of the cervix. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia most commonly occurs at the squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) of the cervix, referring to a transitional area between squamous epithelium of the vagina and the columnar epithelium of the endocervix but can also occur in vaginal walls and vulvar epithelium. CIN is graded on a 1-3 scale, 1 being less abnormal than 3 (see classification section below).


also called Cesarean section, C-section. an operation by which a fetus is taken from the uterus by cutting through the walls of the abdomen and uterus.


CIN 3 is usually caused by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and is found when a cervical biopsy is done. If not treated, these abnormal cells may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. ... Also called cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and stage 0 cervical carcinoma in situ.


the use of extreme cold in surgery or other medical treatment.

Endocervical Curettage (ECC)

Endocervical curettage (ECC). This procedure uses a narrow instrument called a curette to scrape the lining of the endocervical canal. This is an area that can't be seen from the outside of the cervix.


the branch of physiology and medicine that deals with the functions and diseases specific to women and girls, especially those affecting the reproductive system.


abnormal cells may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue. A HSIL is sometimes called moderate or severe dysplasia. Also called high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.


Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a wire loop heated by electric current to remove cells and tissue in a woman’s lower genital tract. It is used as part of the diagnosis and treatment for abnormal or cancerous conditions. The lower genital tract includes the cervix and vagina. The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus and the vagina connects the cervix and the vulva. With LEEP, an electric current passes through the fine wire loop to cut away a thin layer of abnormal tissue. This tissue will be sent to the lab for testing. LEEP can also remove abnormal cells to allow healthy tissue to grow.


the branch of medical science concerned with childbirth and caring for and treating women in or in connection with childbirth. Abbreviation: OB, ob

Pap Testing

Pap Testing
Cervical cancer screening includes two types of screening tests: cytology-based screening, known as the Pap test or Pap smear, and HPV testing. The main purpose of screening with the Pap test is to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer if left untreated. The Pap test can also find noncancerous conditions, such as infections and inflammation. It can also find cancer cells. In regularly screened populations, however, the Pap test identifies most abnormal cells before they become cancer.

Punch Biopsy

punch biopsy
Punch biopsy is considered the primary technique to obtain diagnostic, full-thickness skin specimens. It is performed using a circular blade or trephine attached to a pencil-like handle. The instrument is rotated down through the epidermis and dermis, and into the subcutaneous fat. The punch biopsy yields a cylindrical core of tissue that must be gently handled (usually with a needle) to prevent crush artifact at the pathologic evaluation.